Citation Style For History Essays Free

The following two sample research papers are typical of the papers that might be submitted in different kinds of courses.

Reading these papers will help you learn about organizing an argument and working with sources. The papers also demonstrate the use of MLA style to document sources and the formatting of the margins, line spacing, and other physical attributes of a printed paper. The MLA’s guidelines on formatting papers appear elsewhere on this site.

The sample papers were written by MLA staff members who are experienced college teachers. You may find that the writing and documentation seem polished. Because the sample papers serve as models, we aimed to make them free of errors in grammar and documentation. Nevertheless, we hope that the papers usefully represent good student work.

 

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This paper, on Jacob Lawrence’s Migration series, shows you how to incorporate figures into your text, style a block quotation, and cite a variety of sources. Read about block quotations in the MLA Handbook (1.3.2–3, 1.3.7).

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This paper, on Jane Austen’s Mansfield Park and the courtship novel, features examples of how to use notes in MLA style, cite a dictionary definition, and more.

Chicago Format Examples (16th Edition)

Carefully follow these examples when compiling and formatting both your in-text citations and bibliography in order to avoid losing marks for citing incorrectly.

I. Notes-Bibliography System

Each example in this section includes a numbered footnote, a shortened form of the note, and a corresponding bibliography entry.

Book with single author or editor:


  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 5. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 99-100.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 5. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Pollan, Michael, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Book with multiple authors:

For a book with two authors, note that only the first-listed name is inverted in the bibliography entry.


  • Full Chicago style citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007), 52.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Ward and Burns, War, 52.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.

Print journal article:


  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 89. Walter Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-32.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 89. Blair, “Americanized Comic Braggarts,” 335.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Blair, Walter. “Americanized Comic Braggarts.” Critical Inquiry 4, no. 2 (1977): 331-49.

Online journal article:

When citing electronic sources consulted online, the Chicago style citation manual recommends including an electronic resource identifier, where possible, to lead your reader directly to the source.

A URL is a uniform resource locator, which directs the reader straight to the online source. When using a URL, simply copy the address from your browser’s address bar when viewing the article. You must include the source’s full publication information as well.


  • Full Chicago style citation in a footnote:

  • 12. Wilfried Karmaus and John F. Riebow, “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 645, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 12. Karmaus and Riebow, “Storage of Serum,” 645.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Karmaus, Wilfried, and John F. Riebow. “Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.” Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May 2004): 643-647. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3435987.

DOI:

A DOI is a digital object identifier; a unique and permanent name assigned to a piece of intellectual property, such as a journal article, in any medium in which it is published. If it is available, a DOI is preferable to an ISBN.


  • Full Chicago citation in a footnote:

  • 3. William J. Novak, “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 758, doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

  • Shortened citation in a footnote:

  • 3. Novak, “Myth,” 770.

  • Bibliography entry:

  • Novak, William J. “The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State,” American Historical Review 113 (June 2008): 752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

II. Author-Date System:

Each example in this section includes a Chicago style in-text citation and a corresponding reference list entry.

Article with single author or editor, author mentioned in text:


  • In-text citation:

  • Here we empirically demonstrate that workers’ and regulatory agents’ understandings of discrimination and legality emerge not only in the shadow of the law but also, as Albiston (2005) suggests…

  • Reference list entry:

  • Albiston, Catherine R. 2005. “Bargaining in the Shadow of Social Institutions: Competing Discourses and Social Change in the Workplace Mobilization of Civil Rights.” Law and Society Review 39 (1): 11-47.

Article with multiple authors, author not mentioned in text:


  • Chicago in-text citation:

  • As legal observers point out, much dispute resolution transpires outside the courtroom but in the “shadow of the law” (Mnookin and Kornhauser 1979)...

  • Reference list entry:

  • Mnookin, Robert, and Lewis Kornhauser. 1979. “Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce.” Yale Law Journal 88 (5): 950-97.

*For a work with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry. However, in the in-text citation you need only cite the last name of the first-listed author, followed by et al. (e.g. Barnes et al. 2008, 118-19)

For more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of the Chicago style citation handbook: The Chicago Manual of Style (Sixteenth Edition), or find more information available here.

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