Mb0052 Solved Assignment 2014 Wnba

MB0052–Strategic Management and Business Policy

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Master of Business Administration- MBA Semester 4

MB0052–Strategic Management and Business Policy-4 Credits

(Book ID: B1699)

Assignment (60 Marks)

Note: Answer all questions must be written within 300 to 400 words each.Each Question carries 10 marks 6 X 10=60.

Q1.Describe the role of five major participants in the Strategic Management Process (SMP) of a company.

Answer.The five participants are:

1.Board of directors

2.Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

3.Corporate planning staff

4.Other managers

5.Consultants

Role of Board of Directors

The board of directors is the highest level body in any organizational hierarchy.The board is the final authority in managing the affairs of a company, strategic or non-strategic.They perform these functions according to or subject to the

Q2.Differentiate between mission and vision of a company?Explain with examples.

Answer.Mission and Vision

Many a times, mission and vision of a company are used synonymously or interchangeably which is not correct.There is a marked distinction between the two.Mission is concerned more with the present; the vision, more with the future.The mission statement answers the question: ‘What is our business?’The vision statement answers the

Q3.Explain in detail Porter’s four generic strategies.Explanation of Porter’s generic strategies.

Answer.Porter's Generic Strategies:

A firm positions itself by leveraging its strengths.Michael Porter has argued that a firm's strengths ultimately fall into one of two headings: cost advantage and differentiation.By applying these strengths in either a broad or narrow scope, three generic strategies result: cost leadership, differentiation, and focus.These strategies are applied at the business unit level.They are called generic strategies because they are not firm or industry

Q4.Differentiate between core competence and distinctive competence.

Answer.Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving competitive advantage.The starting point for analyzing core competencies is recognizing that competition between businesses is as much a race for competence mastery as it is for market position and market power.Senior management cannot focus on all activities of a business and the competencies required undertaking them.So the goal is for management to focus

Q5.Define the term ‘industry’.List the types of industries.How do you conduct an industry analysis?

Answer.Industry is the production of an economic good or service within an economy.Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labor in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies.This occurred through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal.Following the Industrial Revolution, perhaps a third of the

Q6.What is meant by ‘structure of an organisation’?Describe the five major structural types or forms of an organisation.

Answer.Organizational Structure of Management

An organizational structure lays the foundation for how a company operates.It is a set of policies and rules that determines:

- How an organization controls and delegates’ tasks and responsibilities

- How decisions are

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Pseudocode is an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or other algorithm.

It uses the structural conventions of a normal programming language, but is intended for human reading rather than machine reading. Pseudocode typically omits details that are essential for machine understanding of the algorithm, such as variable declarations, system-specific code and some subroutines. The programming language is augmented with natural language description details, where convenient, An Inspector Calls Essay Titles About Myself with compact mathematical notation. The purpose of using pseudocode is that it is easier for people to understand than conventional programming language code, and that it is an efficient and environment-independent description of the key principles of an algorithm. It is commonly used in textbooks and scientific publications that are documenting various algorithms, and also in planning of computer program development, for sketching out the structure of the program before the actual coding takes place.

No standard for pseudocode syntax exists, as a program in pseudocode is not an executable program. Pseudocode resembles, but should not be confused with, skeleton programs which can be compiled without errors. Flowcharts, drakon-charts and Unified Modeling Language (UML) can be thought of as a graphical alternative to pseudocode, but are more spacious on paper. Languages such as HAGGIS bridge the gap between pseudocode and code written in programming languages. Its main use is to introduce students to high level languages through use of this hybrid language.

Application[edit]

Textbooks and scientific publications related to computer science and numerical computation often use pseudocode in description of algorithms, so that all programmers can understand them, even if they do not all know the same programming languages. In textbooks, there is usually an accompanying introduction explaining the particular conventions in use. Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab level of detail of the pseudocode may in some cases approach that of formalized general-purpose languages.

A programmer who needs to implement a specific algorithm, especially an unfamiliar one, will often start with a pseudocode description, and then "translate" that description into the target programming language and modify it to interact correctly with the rest of the program. Programmers may also start a project by sketching out the code in pseudocode on paper before writing it in its actual language, as a top-down structuring approach, with a process of steps to be followed as a refinement.

Syntax[edit]

As the name suggests, pseudocode generally does not actually obey the syntax rules of any particular language; there is no systematic standard form, although any particular writer will generally Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab style and syntax; for example, control structures from some conventional programming language. Popular syntax sources include Fortran, Pascal, BASIC, C, C++, Java, Lisp, and ALGOL. Variable declarations are typically omitted. Function Mv Shreyams Kumar Mla Bibliography and blocks of code, such as code contained within a loop, are often replaced by a one-line natural language sentence.

Depending on the writer, pseudocode may therefore vary widely in style, from a near-exact imitation of a real programming language at one extreme, to a description approaching formatted prose at the other.

This is an example of pseudocode (for the mathematical gamefizz buzz):

Fortran style pseudo code

program fizzbuzzDo i=1to100setprint_numbertotrueIf iis divisibleby3print"Fizz"setprint_numbertofalseIf iis divisibleby5print"Buzz"setprint_numbertofalseIf print_number,print iprint anewlineend do

Pascal style pseudo code

procedurefizzbuzzFori:=1to100dosetprint_numbertotrue;Ifiisdivisibleby3thenprint"Fizz";setprint_numbertofalse;Ifiisdivisibleby5thenprint"Buzz";setprint_numbertofalse;Ifprint_number,printi;printanewline;end

C style pseudo code:

voidfunctionfizzbuzz{for(i=1;i<=100;i++){setprint_numbertotrue;Ifiisdivisibleby3{print"Fizz";setprint_numbertofalse;}Ifiisdivisibleby5{print"Buzz";setprint_numbertofalse;}Ifprint_number,printi;printanewline;}}

Structured Basic style pseudo code

Subfizzbuzz()Fori=1to100print_number=TrueIfiisdivisibleby3ThenPrint"Fizz"print_number=FalseEndIfIfiisdivisibleby5ThenPrint"Buzz"print_number=FalseEndIfIfprint_number=TrueThenprintiPrintanewlineNextiEndSub

See also: Category:Articles with example pseudocode.

Mathematical style pseudocode[edit]

In numerical computation, pseudocode often consists of mathematical notation, typically from set and matrix theory, mixed with the control structures of a conventional programming language, and perhaps also natural language descriptions. This is a compact and often informal notation that can be understood by a wide range of mathematically trained people, and is frequently used as a way to describe mathematical algorithms. For example, the sum operator (capital-sigma notation) or the product operator (capital-pi notation) may represent a for-loop and a selection structure one expression:

Return

Normally non-ASCIItypesetting is used for the mathematical equations, for example by means of markup languages, such as TeX or MathML, or proprietary formula editors.

Mathematical style pseudocode is sometimes referred to as pidgin code, for example pidgin ALGOL (the origin of the concept), pidgin Fortran, pidgin BASIC, pidgin Pascal, pidgin C, and pidgin Lisp.

Common mathematical symbols[edit]

Type of operationSymbolExample
Assignment← or :=,
Comparison=, ≠, <, >, ≤, ≥
Arithmetic+, −, ×, /, mod
Floor/ceiling⌊, ⌋, ⌈, ⌉
Logicaland, or
Sums, products∑ ∏

Example[edit]

Here follows a longer example of mathematical-style pseudocode, for the Ford–Fulkerson algorithm:

algorithm ford-fulkerson isinput: Graph G with flow capacity c, source node s, sink node toutput: Flow f such that f is maximal from s to t(Note that f(u,v) is the flow from node u to node v, and c(u,v) is the flow capacity from node u to node v)for each edge (u, v) inGEdof(u, v) ← 0 f(v, u) ← 0 while there exists a path p from s to tin the residual network Gfdo let cf be the flow capacity of the residual network Gfcf(p) ← min{cf(u, v) (u, v) inp} for each edge (u, v) inpdof(u, v)f(u, v) + cf(p) f(v, u) ← −f(u, v)returnf

Machine compilation of pseudocode style languages[edit]

Natural language grammar in programming languages[edit]

Various attempts to bring elements of natural language grammar into computer programming have produced programming languages such as HyperTalk, Lingo, AppleScript, SQL, Inform and to some extent Python. In these languages, parentheses and other special characters are replaced by prepositions, resulting in quite talkative code. These languages are typically dynamically typed, meaning that variable declarations and other boilerplate code can be omitted. Such languages may make it easier for a person without knowledge about the language to understand the code and perhaps also to learn the language. However, the similarity to natural language is usually more cosmetic than genuine. The syntax rules may be just as strict and formal as in conventional programming, and do not necessarily make development of the programs easier.

Mathematical programming languages[edit]

An alternative to using mathematical pseudocode (involving set theory notation or matrix operations) for documentation of algorithms is to use a formal mathematical programming language that is a mix of non-ASCII mathematical notation and program control structures. Then the code can Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab parsed and interpreted by a machine.

Several formal specification languages include set theory notation using special characters. Examples are:

Some array "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" languages include vectorized expressions and matrix operations as non-ASCII formulas, mixed with conventional control structures. Examples are:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Justin Zobel (2013). "Algorithms" in Writing for Computer Science (second edition). Springer. ISBN 1-85233-802-4.

External links[edit]

Look up pseudocode in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
An algorithm is a procedure for solving a problem in terms of the actions to be executed and the order in which those actions are to be executed. An algorithm is merely the sequence of steps taken to solve a problem. The "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" are normally "sequence," "selection, " "iteration," and a case-type statement.

In C, "sequence statements" are imperatives. The "selection" is the "if then else" statement, and the iteration is satisfied by a number of statements, such as the "while," " do," and the "for," while the case-type statement is satisfied by the "switch" statement.


Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms. Pseudocode is a "text-based" detail (algorithmic) design tool.

The rules of Pseudocode are reasonably straightforward. All statements showing "dependency" are to be indented. These include while, do, for, if, switch. Examples below will illustrate this notion.

GUIDE TO PSEUDOCODE LEVEL OF DETAIL: Given record/file descriptions, pseudocode should be created in sufficient detail so as to directly support the programming effort. It is the purpose of pseudocode to elaborate on the algorithmic detail and not just cite an abstraction.


Examples:

1.

If student's grade is greater than or equal to 60 Print "passed" else Print "failed" endif

2.

Set total to zero Set grade counter to one While grade counter is less than or equal to ten Input the next grade Add the grade into the total endwhile Set the class average to the total divided by ten Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab the class average.

3.

Initialize total to zero Initialize counter to zero Input the first grade while the user has not as yet entered the sentinel add this grade into the running total add one to the grade counter input the next grade (possibly the sentinel) endwhile if the counter is not equal to zero set the average to the total divided by the counter print the average else print 'no grades were entered' endif

4.

initialize passes to zero initialize failures to zero initialize student to one while student counter is less than or equal to ten input the next exam result if the student passed

add one to passes else add one to "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" add one to student counter endif endwhile print the number of passes print the number of failures if eight or more students passed print "raise tuition" endif


5. Larger example: NOTE: NEVER ANY DATA DECLARATIONS IN PSEUDOCODE Print out appropriate heading and make it pretty While not EOF do: Scan over blanks and white space until a char is found (get first character on the line) set can't-be-ascending-flag to 0 set consec cntr to 1 set ascending cntr to 1 putchar first char of string to screen Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab set read character to hold character While next character read != blanks and white space Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab putchar out on screen if new char = hold char + 1 add 1 to consec cntr set hold char = new char continue endif if new char >= hold char if consec cntr < 3 "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" set consec cntr to 1 endif set hold char = new char Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab continue endif if new char < hold char if consec cntr < 3 set consec cntr to 1 endif set hold char = new char set can't be ascending flag to 1 continue endif end while if consec cntr >= 3 printf (Appropriate message 1 and skip a line) Among The Hidden EssaysPseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab add 1 to consec total endif if can't be ascending flag = 0 printf (Appropriate message 2 and skip a line) add 1 to ascending total else printf (Sorry message and skip a line) add 1 to sorry total endif end While Print out totals: Number of consecs, ascendings, and sorries. Stop

Some Keywords That Should be Used And Additional Points


For looping and selection, The keywords that are to be used include Do While.EndDo; Do Until.Enddo; While . Endwhile is acceptable. Also, Loop . endloop is also VERY good "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" is language independent. Case.EndCase; If.Endif; Call . with (parameters); Call; Return .; Return; When;

Always use scope terminators for loops and iteration.

As verbs, use the words Generate, Compute, Process, etc. Words such as set, reset, increment, compute, calculate, add, sum, multiply, Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab. print, display, input, output, edit, testetc. with careful indentation tend to foster desirable pseudocode. Also, using "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" such as Set and Initialize, when assigning values to variables is also desirable.


More on Formatting and Conventions in Pseudocoding


  • INDENTATION in pseudocode should be identical to its implementation in a programming language. Try to indent at least four spaces.
  • As noted above, the pseudocode entries are to be cryptic, AND SHOULD NOT BE PROSE. NO SENTENCES.
  • No flower boxes (discussed ahead) in your pseudocode.
  • Do not include data declarations in your pseudocode.

  • But do cite variables that are initialized as part of their declarations. E.g. "initialize count to zero" is a good entry.

    Function Calls, Function Documentation, and Pseudocode

  • Pseudocode Examples

    An algorithm is a procedure for solving a problem in terms of the actions to be executed and the order in which those actions are to be executed. An algorithm is merely the sequence of steps taken to solve a problem. The steps are normally "sequence," "selection, " "iteration," and a case-type statement.

    In C, "sequence statements" are imperatives. The "selection" is the "if then else" statement, and the iteration is satisfied by a number of statements, such as the "while," " do," and the "for," while the case-type statement is satisfied by the "switch" statement.


    Pseudocode is an artificial and informal language that helps programmers develop algorithms. Pseudocode is a "text-based" detail (algorithmic) design tool.

    The rules of Pseudocode are reasonably straightforward. All statements showing "dependency" are to be indented. These include while, do, for, if, switch. Examples below will illustrate this notion.


    Examples:

    1. If student's grade is greater than or equal to 60

    else

    2. Set total to zero

    Set grade counter Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab one

    While grade counter is less than or equal to ten

      Add the grade into the total

    Set the class average to the total divided by ten

    Print the class average.


    Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab 3.

    Initialize total to zero

    Initialize counter to zero

    "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" Input the first grade

    while the user has not as yet entered the sentinel

      add this grade into the running total
      add one to the grade counter
      input the next grade (possibly the sentinel)

    if the counter is not equal to zero

      set the average to the total divided by the counter

    else

      print 'no grades were entered'

    4. Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab initialize passes to zero

    initialize failures to zero

    initialize student to one

    while student counter is less than or equal to ten

      input the next exam result
      if the student passed

      else

    add one to student counter

    print the number of print Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab number of failures

    if eight or more students passed



    Some Keywords That Should be Used


    For looping and selection, The keywords that are to be used include Do While.EndDo; Do Until.Enddo; Case.EndCase; If.Endif; Call . with (parameters); Call; Return .; Return; When; Always use scope terminators for loops and iteration.

    As verbs, use the words Generate, Compute, Process, etc. Words such as set, reset, increment, compute, calculate, add, sum, multiply. . print, display, input, output, edit, testetc. with careful indentation tend to foster desirable pseudocode.

    Do not include data declarations in your pseudocode.



    The If Statement

    Algorithms in Computer Programs are a lot like recipes, but most recipes don't allow the cook to make choices. If it says, mix two eggs Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab a cup of flour, that is exactly what you do. But some Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab recipes do allow for variations. Such as, if cooking on the Grill outside, do one thing, if cooking in the oven inside do something else.

    In a computer program, the algorithm often must choose to do one of two things depending Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab the "state" of the program. If the grade is greater than 90, then give the student an A, otherwise if the grade is greater than 80, give the student a B. etc.

    The most used way to make a decision in a program is the "IF" statement. The statement looks like:

    Matlab Version

    C, Java, ActionScript Version

    The ELSE statement

    The else statement shown above is optional. if "NOTHING" is to be done when the condition is false, then the else statement should not be used! For example, below we only congratulate our good students, we do not chastise our bad students.

    Matlab Version

    C Version

    ActionScript Version


    The ELSEIF statement

    Because we often break problems into several sub paths, Matlab provides an "elseif" control statement. For example, if we have 5 dollars go to the dollar theater, "else if" we have 10 dollars go to the regular theater, "else if" you have 100 Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab dollars, go to a Broadway play, else if you have 1000000 dollars, buy a theater.

    The code in Matlab would look like:

    Matlab

    C, Java, ActionScript

    Only "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" of the Paths will be followed when the program is executed! The actual path through the code which is executed is based The House Of The Seven Gables Essay Topics which of the if statements Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab true first, starting from the "Top Down". The first if/else if statement that is true is executed, and all the rest (even if they would be true) are ignored.

    Notice how the "else" and the "if" are run together to form "elseif" in Matlab, but are two separate Deprivation Of Freedom Of Expression Essay in C, Java, and ActionScript. Go figure.


    The Style of the If statement

    There are several "syntaxes" that you should be aware of when using an "if" statement. The are listed below:

    1. The semicolon

      You should never put a semicolon on the same line as the condition for the if statement, nor for the else statement, nor for the end statement.

      Correct:

      Incorrect:

      if ( money < 5 ); % WRONG WRONG WRONG do this; % WRONG WRONG WRONG
    2. Matching indentation

      When writing an if statement, it is very important to Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab each else/else if so that they are all indented to the same level. This will make "reading" the code much easier for you and the person who has to maintain your code.

      Here is an example of good indentation of the code and bad indentation:

      Good Indentation/Alignment

      Bad Indentation

      Again, proper indentation "shows" helps the programmer (or the reader of the code) to understand the purpose of the code. Think about how in English, we always indent to show a new paragraph. It has a very similar purpose.

    3. IF is not a LOOP

      An "if" statement looks very similar to the "while" loop, but the if statement is not a loop. The code inside the if block (or the else block) will only be executed at most one time. If you want something to happen many times, see loops

    4. The Empty true Branch

      Here is an INCORRECT way to use the ELSE statement, which I will call the "Backwards" else statement.

      Sometimes we will want to do something if the condition is false not true, and you will be tempted to write code with an Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab empty "true" branch and place the code in the "false" branch. Here is a pseudocode example where nothing is done for the "true" condition, a blank exists in the program, and the only code is found in the else part of the if statement.

      "Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab" This is considered bad programming style and I will give it an Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab Alert. Because an if statement represents a true or false condition, we can fix (i.e., remove) the above "empty" block, by "reversing" the condition and removing the else!!!

      Wrong: Matlab

      Correct: Matlab

      Wrong: C, Java, ActionScript

      Correct: C, Java, ActionScript


    5. Shortcuts in Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab Assignment

      Often we will have code to set assign a boolean value to a variable based on the condition of a loop. Such a statement Pseudo Code Assignment Statements Matlab be transformed to remove the loop by a direct assignment to the conditional expression. For example:


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