While reading both articles The Death Penalty Violates the Constitution of the United States and Cyberbullying Has a Broader Impact than Traditional Bullying, I found that there were both deductive and inductive argument presented with in the articles. On the first article about the death penalty, the author used inductive arguments to make his point. An example of and inductive argument in this article is “Furthermore, emotional impact, biased jurors, and discriminatory application of death penalty cases work to create a real risk of wrongful convictions. Therefore, a penalty more severe than imprisonment without the possibility of parole is excessive and violates the Constitution.” In our second article about cyber bullying I think the author used mostly deductive reasoning based off that he used some factual studies to support the answers and allowing truthful statements. However I also so feel that some inductive reasoning was used as well in this passage.
An example of an inductive argument in this article is “One can speculate as to why cyber bullying may feel more distressing to victims. The larger audience, the around the clock availability of digital media, and the ease of dispersing embarrassing photos or videos, all of these affordances may contribute to a larger and more severe impact of cyber bullying over traditional bullying.” An example of an deductive argument is this article is “As might be expected, given that most schools do not allow unstructured access to technology during school hours, being a victim of cyber bullying occurs to a greater extent outside of school compared to inside school.” Both articles showed inductive and deductive arguments.
Moore, B. N., & Parker, R. (2012). Critical Thinking (10th ed.). New
Yourk, NY: McGraw-Hill Stevens, John Paul. “The Death Penalty Violates the Constitution of the United States.” The Ethics of Capital Punishment. Ed. Christine Watkins. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2011. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.
Uhls, Yalda T. “Cyberbullying Has a Broader Impact than Traditional Bullying.” Cyberbullying. Ed. Louise I. Gerdes. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012. At Issue. Rpt. from “Is Bullying Going Digital? Cyber Bullying Facts.” PsychologyinAction.org. 2010. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.
Dr. Tamara Fudge, Kaplan University professor in the School of Business and IT
There are several ways to present information when writing, including those that employ inductive and deductivereasoning. The difference can be stated simply:
- Inductive reasoning presents facts and then wraps them up with a conclusion.
- Deductive reasoning presents a thesis statement and then provides supportive facts or examples.
Which should the writer use? It depends on content, the intended audience, and your overall purpose.
If you want your audience to discover new thingswith you, then inductive writing might make sense. Here is n example:
My dog Max wants to chase every non-human living creature he sees, whether it is the cats in the house or rabbits and squirrels in the backyard. Sources indicate that this is a behavior typical of Jack Russell terriers. While Max is a mixed breed dog, he is approximately the same size and has many of the typical markings of a Jack Russell. From these facts along with his behaviors, we surmise that Max is indeed at least part Jack Russell terrier.
Within that short paragraph, you learned about Max’s manners and a little about what he might look like, and then the concluding sentence connected these ideas together. This kind of writing often keeps the reader’s attention, as he or she must read all the pieces of the puzzle before they are connected.
Purposes for this kind of writing include creative writing and perhaps some persuasive essays, although much academic work is done in deductive form.
If your audience is not likely going to read the entire written piece, then deductive reasoning might make more sense, as the reader can look for what he or she wants by quickly scanning first sentences of each paragraph. Here is an example:
My backyard is in dire need of cleaning and new landscaping. The Kentucky bluegrass that was planted there five years ago has been all but replaced by Creeping Charlie, a particularly invasive weed. The stone steps leading to the house are in some disrepair, and there are some slats missing from the fence. Perennials were planted three years ago, but the moles and rabbits destroyed many of the bulbs, so we no longer have flowers in the spring.
The reader knows from the very first sentence that the backyard is a mess! This paragraph could have ended with a clarifying conclusion sentence; while it might be considered redundant to do so, the scientific community tends to work through deductive reasoning by providing (1) a premise or argument – which could also be called a thesis statement, (2) then evidence to support the premise, and (3) finally the conclusion.
Purposes for this kind of writing include business letters and project documents, where the client is more likely to skim the work for generalities or to hunt for only the parts that are important to him or her. Again, scientific writing tends to follow this format as well, and research papers greatly benefit from deductive writing.
Whether one method or another is chosen, there are some other important considerations. First, it is important that the facts/evidence be true. Perform research carefully and from appropriate sources; make sure ideas are cited properly. You might need to avoid absolute words such as “always,” “never,” and “only,” because they exclude any anomalies. Try not to write questions: the writer’s job is to provide answers instead. Lastly, avoid quotes in thesis statements or conclusions, because they are not your own words – and thus undermine your authority as the paper writer.
This entry was posted in Academic Writing, Online Writing Instruction and tagged Critical thinking, Reasoning. Bookmark the permalink.