Andha Yug (Hindi: अंधा युग, The Age of Blindness or The Blind Age) is a 1954verse play written in Hindi, by renowned novelist, poet, and playwright Dharamvir Bharati (1926-1997). It was the first important play of 20th century India. Set in the last day of the Great Mahabharat war, the five-act tragedy was written in the years following the 1947 partition of India atrocities, as allegory to its destruction of human lives and ethical values. It is a metaphoric meditation on the politics of violence and aggressive selfhood and that war dehumanized individuals and society. Thus both the victor and the vanquished lose eventually.
The anti-war play first created sensation as a radio play at AllahabadAll India Radio. This led to its production by Mumbai-based theatre director, Satyadev Dubey (1962), and subsequent famous production by theatre doyen Ebrahim Alkazi against the backdrop of historical monuments in Delhi (like Feroz Shah Kotla and Purana Qila). It became "a national theatrical event"; his 1963 production was seen by then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. It was subsequently staged by numerous directors and in many Indian languages.
As part of the "theatre of the roots" movement which started in Indian theatre in the 1950s, which tried to look into Indian epics and myths for form, inspiration and content,Andha Yug is today recognised as the "play that heralded a new era in Indian theatre" and standard repertoire of Hindi theatre. Dharamvir Bharati wrote one play during his career and was awarded the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in Playwriting (Hindi) in 1988, given by Sangeet Natak Akademi, India's National Academy of Music, Dance and Drama.
"When will this bloodbath end?
Oh what a war which no one wins
and loses both foe and friend.."
Andha Yug is based on the ancient Sanskrit epic, Mahabharata written by Ved Vyasa. The play begins on the eighteenth and last day of the Great Mahabharata War, which devastated the kingdom of Kauravas, the feuding cousins of Pandavas, their capital the once-magnificent Hastinapur lay burning, in ruins, the battlefield of Kurukshetra was strewn with corpses, and skies filled with vultures and death laments. Fatalities were on both sides as cousins killed each other. The survivors were left grieving and enraged as they continued to blame each other for the destruction. No one was willing to view it as a consequence of their own moral choices.
Ashwatthama, son of guru Dronacharya, in one last-ditch act of revenge against the Pandavas, releases the ultimate weapon of destruction — the Brahmastra, which promises to annihilate the world. No one comes forward to condemn it: Ethics and humanity have been the first casualties of the war.
Krishna who mediated between the cousins before war, remains the moral centre of the play. Even in his failure he presents options that are ethical and just and reminds us that a higher or sacred way is always accessible to human beings even in the worst of times. The play ends with the death of Krishna.
Bharati constructed the play using western drama tradition and early Indian drama, found in Sanskrit drama.
- Act One: The Kaurava Kingdom
- Act Two: The Making of a Beast
- Act Three: The Half-truth of Ashwatthama
- Interlude: Feathers, Wheels and Bandages
- Act Four: Gandhari's Curse
- Act Five: Victory and a Series of Suicides
- Epilogue: Death of the Lord
Andha Yug highlights the perils of self-enchantment in an anti-war allegory. It explores human capacity for moral action, reconciliation, and goodness in times of atrocity and reveals what happens when individuals succumb to the cruelty and cynicism of a blind, dispirited age.
When a ruler, epitomized by a blind Dhritarashtra (physically and also by his ambition for his son Duryodhana), in an equally blind society fail its own side and that of their loved ones. It elaborates on the consequences, when a society fails to stop a cycle of revenge and instead choose a redemptive path, which is always available even in worst of scenarios. This is shown by Krishna's presence amid the mindlessness of fellow human beings. It was only when they collectively reject the voice of wisdom that denigration of war step upon them, leading to wide-scale bloodshed.
The story hints at the perils that await a society that turns away from its wisdom culture and instead succumb to the logic of the moment that can be easily swayed by emotions. Bharati uses the war of Mahabharat to make an anti-war statement and raises questions regarding moral uprightness in the wake of Partition-related atrocities, loss of faith and national identity.
Some directors have used it to bring out contemporary issues like the role of diplomacy of the world.
I suddenly understood
as if in a flash of revelation
that when a man
surrenders his selfhood
and challenges history
he can change the course
of the stars.
The lines of fate
are not carved in stone.
They can be drawn and redrawn
at every moment of time
by the will of man.
Dharamvir Bharati (1926–1997), was a renowned Hindi novelist, poet, and playwright. His novels, Gunahon Ka Devta (The God of Sins, 1949) and Suraj Ka Satvan Ghoda (The Seventh Horse of the Sun, 1952), are classics of Hindi literature. The latter was adapted into a film by Shyam Benegal in 1992.
Originally written as a radio play, the play was first broadcast by the All India Radio (public radio) and immediately drew attention.
Playwright and theatre director Satyadev Dubey heard of the play and met Bharati when the latter had dropped in to see Dubey's Hindi adaptation of Albert Camus's Cross Purposes, as Sapne. Recognizing its potential, Dubey walked around with the script for nearly 10 years trying to get it done. Dubey had been running 'Theatre Unit' (a theatre group started by Ebrahim Alkazi who moved to Delhi in 1962 as director of National School of Drama, Delhi), After staging it himself in 1962, Dubey sent the script to Alkazi. Though many found the play lacking action, Alkazi believed, "action is not rushing around. It’s inward growth."
Alkazi's production made history in modern Indian theatre, when he staged first Andha Yug in 1963, first amidst the backdrop of the ruins of Feroz Shah Kotla, Delhi and then Purana Quila's tiered steps in the 70s. It brought in a new paradigm in Indian theatres. The music for this production was given by noted composer Vanraj Bhatia.
In the coming years, the play attracted many directors and was staged across the country, including Mohan Maharishi, Ram Gopal Bajaj, and Bhanu Bharti. M.K. Raina staged the play in Berlin and the Festival of India in the USSR in 1987, Ratan Thiyam staged it in an open-air performance in Tonga, Japan, on 5 August 1994, a day before the 49th anniversary of atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Other noted productions have been by directors Arvind Gaur, Girish Tiwari (Girda), and Bijon Mondal (2010), who gave it a contemporary twist, accompanied by fusion band. A notable production in 2010 at Feroze Shah Kotla ruins included a cast of Ashish Vidyarthi (Ashwatthama), Uttara Baokar (Gandhari), Mohan Maharishi (Dhritrashtra), Vasant Josalkar (Vidur), Ravi Jhankal (Vriddha Yachak), Om Puri (Krishna), Govind Namdev (Vyas).
- Andha Yug (English), by Dharamvir Bharati, Tr. Alok Bhalla. Oxford University Press, USA, 2010. ISBN 0-19-806522-1.
- Andha Yug (Oriya), by Dharamvir Bharati, Tr. Saudamini Nanda . Sahitya Akademi, 2001. ISBN 81-260-1233-1.
- Andha Yug (English), by Dharamvir Bharati, Tr. Tripurari Sharma. National School of Drama. 2001
- Andha Yug (English, by Dharamvir Bharati, Tr. Paul Jacob and Meena Williams, Enact, 1972.
- ^PublicationsArchived 2011-04-29 at the Wayback Machine. Dharamvir Bharati Official website.
- ^ abcdefRubin, p. 195
- ^ abcdRubin, p. 182
- ^"Remarkable resurgence". The Hindu. August 28, 2010.
- ^Chaman Ahuja (May 8, 2005). "Epic play: The back-to-roots movement in theatre has directors turning to myths for inspiration,". The Tribune.
- ^ abDrama with a distinct vision by Girish Karnad, The Hindu, 25 November 2007.
- ^"SNA: List of Akademi Awardees". Sangeet Natak Akademi Official website. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27.
- ^"A gust of fresh air". The Hindu. August 14, 2009.
- ^George, p. 220
- ^"Small talk". Indian Express. December 15, 2008.
- ^"The Fury And The Ecstacy". Vol 5, Issue 45. Tehelka. November 15, 2008.
- ^"Theatre is revelation (Interview)". The Hindu. February 24, 2008.
- ^"A little peek into history". The Hindu. May 2, 2008.
- ^"'Reaction matters to me'". The Hindu. November 16, 2008.
- ^Vanraj Bhatia profileinternationalopus.
- ^Modern Classics
- ^"Andha Yug brings history alive". DNA (newspaper). March 1, 2010.
- ^Delhi Celebrates! : Andha Yug - Play
The literary journal Mānoa publishes English translations of important literary texts from Asia, the Pacific, and the Americas. Judging by the editorial standards, quality of design, and excellent translation, accompanied by rigorously researched essays, this can be considered to be a collector’s copy. The issue under review features the translation of an important text by Hindi writer Dharamvir Bharati (1926–1997), the canonical verse play Andha Yug: The Age of Darkness, translated by Alok Bhalla, which is a welcome addition to the journal’s scope and can be recommended as compulsory reading for anyone interested in modern Indian playwriting. The play was written in 1953, shortly after the violent partition of the Indian subcontinent and after World War II, and the work retells a part of the epic Mahabharata, attributed to Vyasa and [End Page 334] focusing on the last days of the battle between the warring factions of the two sets of cousins, the Kauravas and Pandavas. The play’s protagonists are some of the most complex figures of the Mahabharata, who appear as ancillary figures in most renditions of the epic: Gandhari, the mother of the Kaurava princes, who blindfolds herself for life out of a sense of misplaced solidarity with her husband, King Dhritarashtra, who himself was not only born blind but also refuses to see the truth in every sense; Sanjaya, the chariot driver for King Dhritarashtra, who is given extraordinary powers of vision by the author of the epic, Vyasa, in order to describe to the blind king the atrocities of the battle; Yuyutsu, the illegitimate son of Dhritarashtra born to a slave mother, who fights on the opposing side with his Pandava cousins rather than his Kaurava half-siblings, out of a sense of duty, and is punished with contempt upon his return home, precisely because he was not able to turn a blind eye to the wrongdoings of his brothers; and Ashwatthama, son of the teacher of both sets of cousins who wreaks havoc on the Pandavas in the aftermath of the war, who is constantly confronted with half-truths, the contradictions and dilemmas of which drive him to revenge and unending pain. The title Andha Yug: The Age of Darkness could just as well have been translated as The Blind Age, for the profound questions of darkness, blindness, complicity, and ignorance resonate at the core of the play and point out that the lack of vision characterizes not just individuals but entire eras. The play transcends its direct reference to the violence ensuing from the partition of India and Pakistan (as the continent struggled with estimated deaths ranging from three hundred thousand to a million, and perhaps twelve million displaced), and speaks to the futility of war and greed everywhere.
Alok Bhalla’s translation does full justice to the cadence of the Hindi verses; it retains the vernacular quality of Bharati’s retelling of the Sanskrit epic, intensely aware that the epic is in fact never told in some pure form but always retold, adapted, and interpreted in different contexts and times. Compared to earlier, no less intriguing translations of the play, such as the one by feminist theatre director Tripurari Sharma, Bhalla’s version seems to be more accessible to a reader unfamiliar with the Mahabharata, as well as to those who read this as a literary text rather than as a script for performance. It also pays careful attention to the ethical dilemmas and inner contradictions of the characters rather than elaborately describing the gory details of the war alone. The contextual essays by University of Hawai‘i professor and journal editor Frank Stewart are a useful introduction to the Mahabharata and the work of Dharamvir Bharati. Bhalla’s own introduction does what a translator’s introduction should avoid doing: explaining the play to the reader. His unnecessarily heavily footnoted essayistic commentary is distracting and random in its associations, though giving evidence of his erudition...