Importance Of Education Hindi Essay On Corruption

Corruption is any act of dishonesty or unethical conduct by an individual entrusted with a position of power. Several people especially young students have a lot of curiosity to know in detail about corruption and its repercussions; more so because it is impacting our country’s economic growth and prosperity. Our speech on corruption especially long speech on corruption shares the detailed information on the topic. Short speech on corruption can be used as a sample if you want to prepare for a debate. The language used in the corruption speech is so simple that even a child can understand the meaning and so impactful that it can help you leave an impact on your audience.

Speech on Corruption

Speech on Corruption – 1

Warm Greetings and Good Afternoon to my esteemed class teacher and students!

The speech topic for today is corruption and I will address my viewpoint on the same, particularly on political corruption. Ever since the formation of our country, everything is dictated by the political leaders and people ruling in the government sectors. Apparently we are a democratic country, but whosoever comes into the power tries to misuse that power for his/her personal gains, for acquiring wealth and luxury. The common people, as always, find themselves in a state of deprivation.

In our country, the gap between the haves and have-nots is so huge that it becomes a clear example of corruption in our country where one section of society acquires richness and wealth and on the other hand the majority of the masses remain below the poverty line. This is the reason why economy of certain nations is facing a decline, such as the USA economy.

If we are a responsible citizen of our country, we should understand that this corruption is eating into our nation’s economical growth like a termite and is giving rise to crime in our society. If the majority section of our society will continue to live in deprivation and poverty and will not find any employment opportunity, the crime rate will never come down. Poverty will destroy people’s ethics and morals and would result in an increase in hatred amongst the people. It is high time for us to address this issue and fight it in order to pave way for the holistic growth of our country.

The parliament should pass strict laws against the anti-social elements of our society, regardless of the fact that whether such people are within the political system of our country or outside it. There should be an equal treatment for all.

If one were to think and evaluate the causes behind corruption, then it could be countless. However, the most glaring reason responsible for the vicious spread of corruption, I believe, is the people’s non-serious attitude towards the governmental rules and laws and the sheer inertia of government towards those who spread evil in society. It appears that the ones who are employed to put an end to corruption have themselves become complicit in the crime and are encouraging it. Though there are various strict laws like the Prevention of money Laundering Act; Indian Penal Code of 1860 and the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988; to name a few, but there is no serious implementation of these laws.

Yet another important reason behind corruption is the non-transparency of bureaucratic and governmental functions. In particular, the institutions that are run under the government show moral laxity and brush under the carpet serious issues. The money that should be used for the upliftment of poor people is gobbled up by the politicians themselves. Even worse, the people who are not affluent and cannot bribe the people in power are not able to get their work done and hence their files are fated to meet the dust instead of stimulating action. Clearly, any growing economy would come falling down when corrupt officials hold the reign of a country.

The situation has become very tense and unless the general public takes proactive measures and becomes vigilant, the corruption cannot be uprooted from our society. So come let’s join hands and fight against corruption.

Thank You!

Speech on Corruption – 2

Warm Greetings to our Respected Principal, Vice Principal, Fellow Colleagues and My Dear Students!

I, one of the senior faculty members of History Department, welcome you all on the eve of Independence Day Celebration. Amidst celebration and gaiety, it has been thought fit by the faculty members to address some serious issue that our nation is suffering with and which is primarily corruption.

Though our great Indian freedom fighters won the freedom struggle ages back, but serious issues such as corruption, unemployment, poverty, etc are still eating into our country’s economy and not enabling it to grow. Where does the problem lie – in the governance or society as a whole? We need to identify those grey areas which lead to the spread of corruption and adopt strict measures for eradicating those causes. Winning independence from the British rule was one thing, but we will only be able to make this freedom worth their efforts when every citizen of this country will be able to enjoy a basic standard of living and there will be no iniquity in our society.

No doubt, our country is a land of nature and vivid landscape; however the beauty and goodwill of our land has been marred by the ensuing corrupt activities that are going all around. Nearly in every sector, we can see corrupt personnel who do not deliver their roles and responsibilities well unless are bribed by the common people. Such illegal activities are going day by day for a simple reason that we, as the natives of this country, are encouraging these people and no strict actions are being taken against them.

Moreover, such people think that they can easily escape the laws and go unscathed. Excess of power and money have corrupted the officials and the situation has become so worse that if a common man needs any assistance or help from the government staff or administration, then he/she will have to adopt the corrupt method. In fact, you would find corrupt people in the senior administration to the junior staff and even at the clerical positions. It is really difficult for a common man to evade them and get his/her work done.

Not only cities, but even small towns and villages have come under its influence. I think it’s high time, when we as a citizen of our country should owe this responsibility to wipe out corruption from the face of our mother earth and make our country a corrupt free land for our next generation and to feel proud of it.

Clearly, our students are the future of this country, so you should pledge to never adopt any corrupt path under any situation and in fact you will raise your voice against any unlawful or illegal activity that takes place around. Problems aggravate when we turn a blind towards them, but I sincerely hope that from now on each one of us will strictly oppose and prevent corrupt activities from happening anywhere in our country and expose such officials too who act as a blockage in the development of our country.

Thank You!

Speech on Corruption – 3

Good Morning respect Principal, teachers and my dear friends,

Today’s topic for this Assembly meeting is, ‘Corruption’. A poison that ruins the value of individuals and the country.

My perspective as to what corruption means is that, it is an act performed deliberately that reduces the authenticity and quality of the nation. People explain corruption as one simple thing statement, ‘I had some urgency and had to get this thing done quickly’. But my dear friends, this simple statement is so damaging that it directly hits on the country’s image and stature in the world.

We as individuals should understand that even though by giving money for getting our work done helps us in quick execution but deep within it is deteriorating the quality of our life. It builds a bad image of the country and leads to lowering of our country’s ratings. It does not seem to be a big deed that we pay an extra amount or what I may say as bribe to some people for taking some advantage from them. But, believe me that deep down, it kills the ethical traits or values of the people.

This inherited value reduction is not only of the person who is taking the bribe but also of the person who gives it. Corruption is the hurdle between the country’s and individual’s authentic prosperity and development. It affects the growth and development of the nation in all aspects like socially, economically and politically.

Corruption is also the unfair use of public power for some private advantages by breaking all or few of the rules and regulations made by the government. One common form of corruption in our country is receiving black money in cash. Even during elections, it has been observed that we see many news on raid being done here at some minister’s premises and then on the other day so much of cash found in this minister’s wardrobe. Haven’t we?

Yes, we have these all are the forms of corruption. Many political leaders say that we wish to eradicate corruption, but honestly I haven’t seen concrete efforts coming for this cause. For controlling corruption, we have to work on the root cause. This corruption in deep inside the roots of our country and eradicating this is a huge activity or a project that requires complete dedication with purity at heart.

Strict actions should be documented in policies and should necessarily be implemented on those who practice corruption for their greed.

Thank you everyone for being a part of this Assembly session. I am glad that we chose this important topic as our discussion point. I request you all to please make it a habit to stop corruption exactly there itself. We should not be selfish and just think about our convenience. I hope that you all will help me and our nation to control this ugly act of corruption.

Thank You! Have a great Day! We have to end corruption!


 

Speech on Corruption – 4

Good evening everyone! Thanks for being a part of this occasion and taking out time to be a part of it.

My discussion for this evening is on the cancer of ‘Corruption’ that has made our life sick. Corruption is an illegal behavior on the measurement of an authority or influential party throughout by means that are illegal, depraved, or irreconcilable with principled values. Though this word is so simple to define but too hard to take out from any country. Corruption is the biggest act that makes the country’s image weak and negative.

Corruption may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement of funds. Corruption has impacted Indian economy and government so much that there are no easy solutions for eradicating it. If the citizens of a country are corrupted then it eventually adds to the loss of values of a country. We don’t realize that what we do, at the end becomes a part of where we live and around whom we live.

Corrupt people always tend to hide themselves behind the fake face of truth and honesty. Most of the time corruption is referred to the bureaucratic-political-police nexus that eats into the vitals of democracy.

Corruption starts mostly at the higher levels and it carries its way to the extreme low levels too. The heights of corruption has reached to a very great extent where there are no proper laws to bring to justice these corrupt people. Because of the highly corrupt people who just would do anything for money, it has become very difficult for the common man or the righteous to survive.

The level of corruption can be as low as bribing traffic police officer for not wearing a helmet to the extreme level when private contractors bribe government individuals to get the tender of a public work or to get the job done. Today, corruption is one of the greatest factors hindering development and stifling the realization of democracy. Corruption affects the growth of a nation adversely.

We all should understand that corruption is acting as an obstacle in the way of the country’s progress. Each one of us should be cautious of the acts that we perform. We take it lightly to give Rs 100-200 to the Travelling Ticket Inspector (TTI) just for our preferable seat allocation, but deep down that person has made it a habit to procure money from everybody.

Thank you for being a part of this conversation. As a conclusion to my session I would just like to tell you all that corrupt is not only the one who receives the illegal money but also the one who is providing the bribe. I hope that from now onwards, you all will not bribe anyone and control others as well. We see things as small deeds, but these small deeds at the end add up to create awareness against corruption.

Thank you!! Have a great day and keep sharing this message of making our country corruption free.

"Indian education" redirects here. For other uses, see Indian school.

Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.

India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7–10 age group, by 2011.[3] India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development.[4] Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions. While enrollment in higher education has increased steadily over the past decade, reaching a Gross Enrollment Ratio of 24% in 2013,[5] there still remains a significant distance to catch up with tertiary education enrollment levels of developed nations,[6] a challenge that will be necessary to overcome in order to continue to reap a demographic dividend from India's comparatively young population.

At the primary and secondary level, India has a large private school system complementing the government run schools, with 29% of students receiving private education in the 6 to 14 age group.[7] Certain post-secondary technical schools are also private. The private education market in India had a revenue of US$450 million in 2008, but is projected to be a US$40 billion market.[8]

As per the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6-14 were enrolled in school. This is the fourth annual survey to report enrollment above 96%. Another report from 2013 stated that there were 22.9 crore students enrolled in different accredited urban and rural schools of India, from Class I to XII, representing an increase of 23 lakh students over 2002 total enrollment, and a 19% increase in girl's enrollment.[9] While quantitatively India is inching closer to universal education, the quality of its education has been questioned particularly in its government run school system. Some of the reasons for the poor quality include absence of around 25% of teachers every day.[10] States of India have introduced tests and education assessment system to identify and improve such schools.[11]

It is important to clarify that while there are private schools in India, they are highly regulated in terms of what they can teach, in what form they can operate (must be a non-profit to run any accredited educational institution) and all other aspects of operation. Hence, the differentiation of government schools and private schools can be misleading.[12]

In India's higher education system, a significant number of seats are reserved under affirmative action policies for the historically disadvantaged Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. In universities, colleges, and similar institutions affiliated to the federal government, there is a maximum 50% of reservations applicable to these disadvantaged groups, at the state level it can vary. Maharashtra had 73% reservation in 2014, which is the highest percentage of reservations in India.

School education[edit]

See also: List of schools

The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education.[13]:3 In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges,[13]:44 and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor's degree.[14] The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges.[13]:5 This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.[15]

Administration[edit]

Policy[edit]

Education Policy is prepared by the Centre Government and State Governments at national and state levels respectively. The National Policy on Education (NPE), 1986, has provided for environment awareness, science and technology education, and introduction of traditional elements such as Yoga into the Indian secondary school system.[16] A significant feature of India's secondary school system is the emphasis on inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society. Professionals from established institutes are often called to support in vocational training. Another feature of India's secondary school system is its emphasis on profession based vocational training to help students attain skills for finding a vocation of his/her choosing.[17] A significant new feature has been the extension of SSA to secondary education in the form of the Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan.[18]

Curriculum and School Education Boards[edit]

School boards set the curriculum, conduct board level exams mostly at 10th and 12th level to award the school diplomas. Exams at the remaining levels (also called standard, grade or class, denoting the years of schooling) are conducted by the schools.

  • National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT): The NCERT is the apex body located at New Delhi, Capital City of India. It makes the curriculum related matters for school education across India.[19] The NCERT provides support, guidance and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies.[20] There are other curriculum bodies governing school education system specially at state level.
  • State Government Boards of Education: Most of the state governments have at least one "State board of secondary school education". However, some states like Andhra Pradesh have more than one. Also the union territories do not have a board. Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, and Lakshadweep and Puducherry Lakshadweep share the services with a larger state. The boards set curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and the curriculum varies from state to state and has more local appeal with examinations conducted in regional languages in addition to English - often considered less rigorous than central curriculums such as CBSE or ICSE/ISC. Most of these conduct exams at 10th and 12th level, and some even at conduct board level exams at 5th, 6th and 8th level.
  • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): The CBSE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th standards that are called board exams. Students studying the CBSE Curriculum take the All India Secondary School Examination (AISSE) at the end of grade 10 and All India Senior School Certificate Examination (AISSCE) at the end of grade 12. Examinations are offered in Hindi and English.
  • Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations (CISCE): CISCE sets curriculum from Grades 1 to 12 and conducts three examinations, namely, the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE - Class/Grade 10); The Indian School Certificate (ISC - Class/Grade 12) and the Certificate in Vocational Education (CVE - Class/Grade 12). CISCE English level has been compared to UK's A-Levels; this board offers more choices of subjects. CBSE exams at grade 10 and 12 have often been compared with CICSE and ISC examinations. CICSE is generally considered to be more rigorous than the CBSE AISSE (grade 10) but the CBSE AISSCE and ISC examinations are almost on par with each other in most subjects with ISC including a slightly more rigorous English examination than the CBSE 12th grade examination. The CBSE and ISC are recognized internationally and most universities abroad accept the final results of CBSE and ISC exams for admissions purposes and as proof of completion of secondary school.
  • National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS): The NIOS conducts two examinations, namely, Secondary Examination and Senior Secondary Examination (All India) and also some courses in Vocational Education. National Board of education is run by Government of India's HRD Ministry to provide education in rural areas and challenged groups in open and distance education mode. A pilot project started by CBSE to provide high class affordable education, provides education up to 12th standard. Choice of subjects is highly customisable and equivalent to CBSE. Home-schooled students usually take NIOS or international curriculum examinations as they are ineligible to write CBSE or ISC exams.
  • Islamic Madrasah: Their boards are controlled by local state governments, or autonomous, or affiliated with Darul Uloom Deoband or Darul Uloom Nadwtul Ulama.
  • Autonomous schools: Such as Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education Puducherry, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula.
  • International Baccalaureate (IB) and Cambridge International Examinations (CIB): These are generally private schools that have dual affiliation with one of the school education board of India as well as affiliated to the International Baccalaureate (IB) Programme and/or the Cambridge International Examinations (CIB).
  • International schools, which offer 10th and 12th standard examinations under the International Baccalaureate, Cambridge Senior Secondary Examination systems or under their home nations school boards (such as run by foreign embassies or the expat communities).
  • Special education: A special Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) programme was started in 1974 with a focus on primary education.[19] but which was converted into Inclusive Education at Secondary Stage[21]

Midday Meal Nutrition Scheme[edit]

The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide,[22] by suppling free lunches on working days for children in primary and upper primary classes in government, government aided, local body, Education Guarantee Scheme, and alternate innovative education centres, Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Child Labour Project schools run by the ministry of labour.[23] Serving 120,000,000 children in over 1,265,000 schools and Education Guarantee Scheme centres, it is the largest such programme in the world.[24]

Teachers education[edit]

See also: National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education and Centre for Teacher Accreditation

In addition, NUEPA (National University of Educational Planning and Administration)[25] and NCTE (National Council for Teacher Education) are responsible for the management of the education system and teacher accreditation.[26]

Levels of schooling[edit]

Pre-Primary education[edit]

The pre-primary stage is the foundation of children's knowledge, skills and behaviour. On completion of pre-primary education, the children are sent to the primary stage but pre-primary education in India is not a fundamental right. In rural India, pre-primary schools are rarely available in small villages and urban areas on the contrary. But in cities and big towns, there are many established players in the pre-primary education sector. The demand for the preschools is growing considerably in the smaller towns and cities but still only 1% of the population under age 6 is enrolled in preschool education.

  • Play group (pre-nursery): At play schools, children are exposed to a lot of basic learning activities that help them to get independent faster and develop their self-help qualities like eating food themselves, dressing up, and maintaining cleanliness. The age limit for admission into pre-nursery is 2 to 3 years. Anganwadi is government funded free rural childcare & mothercare nutrition and learning program also incorporating the free Midday Meal Scheme.
  • Nursery: Nursery level activities help children unfold their talents, thus enabling them to sharpen their mental and physical abilities. The age limit for admission in nursery is 3 to 4 years.
  • LKG: It is also called the Junior Kindergarten (Jr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in LKG is 4 to 5 years.
  • UKG: It is also called the Senior Kindergarten (Sr. kg) stage. The age limit for admission in UKG is 5 to 6 years.

LKG and UKG stages prepare and help children emotionally, mentally, socially and physically to grasp knowledge easily in the later stages of school and college life. [27] A systematic process of preschool education is followed in India to impart knowledge in the best possible way for better understanding of the young children. By following an easy and interesting curriculum, teachers strive hard to make the entire learning process enjoyable for the children.

Primary education[edit]

The Indian government lays emphasis on primary education, also referred to as elementary education, to children aged 6 to 14 years old.[28] Because education laws are given by the states, duration of primary school visit alters between the Indian states. The Indian government has also banned child labour in order to ensure that the children do not enter unsafe working conditions.[28] However, both free education and the ban on child labour are difficult to enforce due to economic disparity and social conditions.[28] 80% of all recognised schools at the elementary stage are government run or supported, making it the largest provider of education in the country.[29]

However, due to a shortage of resources and lack of political will, this system suffers from massive gaps including high pupil to teacher ratios, shortage of infrastructure and poor levels of teacher training. Figures released by the Indian government in 2011 show that there were 5,816,673 elementary school teachers in India.[30] As of March 2012 there were 2,127,000 secondary school teachers in India.[31] Education has also been made free[28] for children for 6 to 14 years of age or up to class VIII under the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act 2009.[32]

There have been several efforts to enhance quality made by the government. The District Education Revitalisation Programme (DERP) was launched in 1994 with an aim to universalise primary education in India by reforming and vitalising the existing primary education system.[33] 85% of the DERP was funded by the central government and the remaining 15% was funded by the states.[33] The DERP, which had opened 1.6 lakh new schools including 84,000 alternative education schools delivering alternative education to approximately 35 lakh children, was also supported by UNICEF and other international programmes.[33] In January 2016, Kerala became the 1st Indian state to achieve 100% primary education through its literacy programme Athulyam.[34]

This primary education scheme has also shown a high Gross Enrollment Ratio of 93–95% for the last three years in some states.[33] Significant improvement in staffing and enrollment of girls has also been made as a part of this scheme.[33] The current scheme for universalisation of Education for All is the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan which is one of the largest education initiatives in the world. Enrollment has been enhanced, but the levels of quality remain low.

Secondary education[edit]

Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8.85 crore children according to the 2001 Census of India. The final two years of secondary is often called Higher Secondary (HS), Senior Secondary, or simply the "+2" stage. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses.

UGC, NCERT, CBSE and ICSE directives state qualifying ages for candidates who wish to take board exams. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams. It further states that upon successful completion of Higher Secondary, one can apply to higher education under UGC control such as Engineering, Medical, and Business Administration.

Secondary education in India is examination-oriented and not course-based: students register for and take classes primarily to prepare for one of the centrally-administered examinations. Senior school or high school is split into 2 parts (grades 9-10 and grades 11-12) with a standardized nationwide examination at the end of grade 10 and grade 12 (usually informally referred to as "board exams"). Grade 10 examination results can be used for admission into grades 11-12 at a secondary school, pre-university program, or a vocational or technical school. Passing a grade 12 board examination leads to the granting of a secondary school completion diploma, which may be used for admission into vocational schools or universities in the country or the world. Most reputable universities in India require students to pass college-administered admissions tests in addition to passing a final secondary school examination for entry into a college or university. School grades are usually not sufficient for college admissions in India.

Most schools in India do not offer subject and scheduling flexibility due to budgeting constraints (for e.g.: most students in India are not allowed to take Chemistry and History in grades 11-12 because they are part of different "streams"). Private candidates (i.e. not studying in a school) are generally not allowed to register for and take board examinations but there are some exceptions such as NIOS.

10th (Matriculation or Secondary) Exam[edit]

Students taking the grade 10 examination usually take six subjects: English, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science, one language, and one optional subject depending on the availability of teachers at different schools. "Elective" or optional subjects often include Computer Applications, Economics, Physical Education, Commerce, and Environmental Science.

12th (Senior Secondary or Higher Secondary) Exam[edit]

Students taking the grade 12 examination usually take four or five subjects with English or the local language being compulsory. Students re-enrolling in most secondary schools after grade 10 have to make the choice of choosing a "core stream" in addition to English or the local language: Science (Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics), Commerce (Accounts, Commerce, and Economics), or Humanities (any three of History, Political Science, Sociology, Psychology, Geography depending on school). Students study Mathematics up to single-variable Calculus in grade 12.

Types of schools[edit]

Government schools[edit]

Majority of the students study in the government schools where poor and vulnerable students study for free until the age of 14. According to Education Ministry data, 65% (113 million,) of all school students in 20 states go to government schools (c. 2017).[35] These include schools runs by the state and local government as well as the centre government. Example of large centre government run school systems are Kendriya Vidyalaya in urban areas, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya for the gifted students, Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya for girls belonging to vulnerable SC/ST/OBC classes, Indian Army Public Schools run by the Indian Army for the children of soldiers.

Kendriya Vidyalaya project, was started for the employees of the central government of India, who are deployed throughout the country. The government started the Kendriya Vidyalaya project in 1965 to provide uniform education in institutions following the same syllabus at the same pace regardless of the location to which the employee's family has been transferred.[19]

Government aided private schools[edit]

These are usually charitable trust run schools that receive partial funding from the government. Largest system of aided schools is run by D.A.V. College Managing Committee.

Private schools (unaided)[edit]

According to current estimates, 29% of Indian children are privately educated.[7] With more than 50% children enrolling in private schools in urban areas, the balance has already tilted towards private schooling in cities; and, even in rural areas, nearly 20% of the children in 2004-5 were enrolled in private schools.[36]

Most middle-class families send their children to private schools,[36] which might be in their own city or at distant boarding schools such as Rajkumar College, Rajkot, the oldest private school in India. At such schools, the medium of education is often English, but Hindi and/or the state's official language is also taught as a compulsory subject.[citation needed] Pre-school education is mostly limited to organised neighbourhood nursery schools with some organised chains.[citation needed]Montessori education is also popular, due to Maria Montessori's stay in India during World War II. In 2014, four of the top ten pre-schools in Chennai were Montessori.[37]

Many privately owned and managed schools carry the appellation "Public", such as the Delhi Public Schools, or Frank Anthony Public Schools. These are modelled after British public schools, which are a group of older, expensive and exclusive fee-paying private independent schools in England.

According to some research, private schools often provide superior results at a multiple of the unit cost of government schools. The reason being high aims and better vision.[38][39][40] However, others have suggested that private schools fail to provide education to the poorest families, a selective being only a fifth of the schools and have in the past ignored Court orders for their regulation.[citation needed]

In their favour, it has been pointed out that private schools cover the entire curriculum and offer extra-curricular activities such as science fairs, general knowledge, sports, music and drama.[41] The pupil teacher ratios are much better in private schools (1:31 to 1:37 for government schools) and more teachers in private schools are female.[citation needed] There is some disagreement over which system has better educated teachers. According to the latest DISE survey, the percentage of untrained teachers (para-teachers) is 54.91% in private, compared to 44.88% in government schools and only 2.32% teachers in unaided schools receive in-service training compared to 43.44% for government schools. The competition in the school market is intense, yet most schools make profit.[41] However, the number of private schools in India is still low - the share of private institutions is 7% (with upper primary being 21% secondary 32% - source: fortress team research). Even the poorest often go to private schools despite the fact that government schools are free. A study found that 65% school-children in Hyderabad's slums attend private schools.[40]

International schools[edit]

As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC)[42] listed India as having 410 international schools.[43] ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms "ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation."[43] This definition is used by publications including The Economist.[44]

Home-schooling[edit]

Home-schooling is legal in India, though it is the less explored option. The Indian Government's stance on the issue is that parents are free to teach their children at home, if they wish to and have the means.The then HRD Minister Kapil Sibal has stated that despite the RTE Act of 2009, if someone decides not to send his/her children to school, the government would not interfere.[45]

Higher education[edit]

Main article: Higher education in India

Student may opt for vocation education or the university education.

Vocational education[edit]

India's All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) reported, in 2013, that there are more than 4,599 vocational institutions that offer degrees, diploma and post-diploma in architecture, engineering, hotel management, infrastructure, pharmacy, technology, town services and others. There were 17.4 lakh students enrolled in these schools.[46] Total annual intake capacity for technical diplomas and degrees exceeded 34 lakh in 2012.[citation needed]

According to the University Grants Commission (UGC) total enrollment in Science, Medicine, Agriculture and Engineering crossed 65 lakh in 2010. The number of women choosing engineering has more than doubled since 2001.[citation needed]

University education[edit]

Main article: List of Indian institutions of higher education

After passing the Higher Secondary Examination (the Standard 12 examination), students may enrol in general degree programmes such as bachelor's degree (graduation) in arts, commerce or science, or professional degree programme such as engineering, law or medicine and become B. Sc., B. Com., and B. A. graduates.[47] India's higher education system is the third largest in the world, after China and the United States.[48] The main governing body at the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission (India) (UGC), which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the centre and the state up to Post graduation and Doctorate (Ph.D).[49] Accreditation for higher learning is overseen by 12 autonomous institutions established by the University Grants Commission.[50]

As of 2012, India has 152[51] central universities, 316 state universities, and 191 private universities. Other institutions include 33,623[52] colleges, including 1,800 exclusive women's colleges, functioning under these universities and institutions,[49] and 12,748 Institutions offering Diploma Courses. The emphasis in the tertiary level of education lies on science and technology.[53] Indian educational institutions by 2004 consisted of a large number of technology institutes.[54] Distance learning is also a feature of the Indian higher education system.[54] The Government has launched Rashtriya Uchchattar Shiksha Abhiyan to provide strategic funding to State higher and technical institutions. A total of 316 state public universities and 13,024 colleges will be covered under it.[55]

Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institute of Science and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) have been globally acclaimed for their standard of under-graduate education in engineering. Several other institutes of fundamental research such as the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Harish-Chandra Research Institute (HRI), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) are also acclaimed for their standard of research in basic sciences and mathematics. However, India has failed to produce world class universities both in the private sector or the public sector.[56]

Besides top rated universities which provide highly competitive world class education to their pupils, India is also home to many universities which have been founded with the sole objective of making easy money. Regulatory authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. Indian Government has failed to check on these education shops, which are run by big businessmen & politicians. Many private colleges and universities do not fulfil the required criterion by the Government and central bodies (UGC, AICTE, MCI, BCI etc.) and take students for a ride. For example, many institutions in India continue to run unaccredited courses as there is no legislation strong enough to ensure legal action against them. Quality assurance mechanisms have failed to stop misrepresentations and malpractices in higher education. At the same time regulatory bodies have been accused of corruption, specifically in the case of deemed-universities.[57] In this context of lack of solid quality assurance mechanism, institutions need to step-up and set higher standards of self-regulation.[58]

Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts in the country, higher education enrollments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 % of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicised and have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favouritism and corruption.

— Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 2007[59]

The Government of India is aware of the plight of higher education sector and has been trying to bring reforms, however, 15 bills are still awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament.[60] One of the most talked about bill is Foreign Universities Bill, which is supposed to facilitate entry of foreign universities to establish campuses in India. The bill is still under discussion and even if it gets passed, its feasibility and effectiveness is questionable as it misses the context, diversity and segment of international foreign institutions interested in India.[61] One of the approaches to make internationalisation of Indian higher education effective is to develop a coherent and comprehensive policy which aims at infusing excellence, bringing institutional diversity and aids in capacity building.[62]

Three Indian universities were listed in the Times Higher Education list of the world's top 200 universities — Indian Institutes of Technology, Indian Institutes of Management, and Jawaharlal Nehru University in 2005 and 2006.[63] Six Indian Institutes of Technology and the Birla Institute of Technology and Science—Pilani were listed among the top 20 science and technology schools in Asia by Asiaweek.[64] The Indian School of Business situated in Hyderabad was ranked number 12 in global MBA rankings by the Financial Times of London in 2010[65] while the All India Institute of Medical Sciences has been recognised as a global leader in medical research and treatment.[66] The University of Mumbai was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.[67] It was ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013[68] and was India's 3rd best Multi-Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking of Indian Universities after University of Calcutta and Delhi University.[69]Loyola College, Chennai is one of the best ranked arts and science college in India with the UGC award of College of Excellence tag.

Technical education[edit]

From the first Five-year Plan onwards, India's emphasis was to develop a pool of scientifically inclined manpower.[70] India's National Policy on Education (NPE) provisioned for an apex body for regulation and development of higher technical education, which came into being as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) in 1987 through an act of the Indian parliament.[71] At the federal level, the Indian Institutes of Technology, the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, the National Institutes of Technology and the Indian Institutes of Information Technology are deemed of national importance.[71]

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are among the nation's premier education facilities.[71]

[71] The UGC has inter-university centres at a number of locations throughout India to promote common research, e.g. the Nuclear Science Centre at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.[72] Besides there are some British established colleges such as Harcourt Butler Technological Institute situated in Kanpur and King George Medical University situated in Lucknow which are important centre of higher education.

Central Universities such as Banaras Hindu University, Jamia Millia Islamia University, Delhi University, Mumbai University, University of Calcutta, etc. too are pioneers of technical education in the country.

In addition to above institutes, efforts towards the enhancement of technical education are supplemented by a number of recognised Professional Engineering Societies such as:

  1. Institution of Engineers (India)
  2. Institution of Civil Engineers (India)
  3. Institution of Mechanical Engineers (India)
  4. Institution of Chemical Engineering (India)
  5. Institution of Electronics and Tele-Communication Engineers (India)
  6. Indian Institute of Metals
  7. Institution of Industrial Engineers (India)
  8. Institute of Town Planners (India)
  9. Indian Institute of Architects

that conduct Engineering/Technical Examinations at different levels (Degree and diploma) for working professionals desirous of improving their technical qualifications.

The number of graduates coming out of technical colleges increased to over 7 lakh in 2011 from 5.5 lakh in FY 2010.[73][74] However, according to one study, 75% of technical graduates and more than 85% of general graduates lack the skills needed in India's most demanding and high-growth global industries such as Information Technology.[75] These high-tech global information technologies companies directly or indirectly employ about 23 lakh people, less than 1% of India's labour pool.[76] India offers one of the largest pool of technically skilled graduates in the world. Given the sheer numbers of students seeking education in engineering, science and mathematics, India faces daunting challenges in scaling up capacity while maintaining quality.[77][78]

Open and distance learning[edit]

At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) provides opportunities for continuing education to those who missed completing school education. 14 lakh students are enrolled at the secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning.[citation needed] In 2012 Various state governments also introduced "STATE OPEN SCHOOL" to provide distance education.[79]

At higher education level, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) co-ordinates distance learning. It has a cumulative enrollment of about 15 lakh, serviced through 53 regional centres and 1,400 study centres with 25,000 counselors. The Distance Education Council (DEC), an authority of IGNOU is co-coordinating 13 State Open Universities and 119 institutions of correspondence courses in conventional universities. While distance education institutions have expanded at a very rapid rate, but most of these institutions need an up gradation in their standards and performance. There is a large proliferation of courses covered by distance mode without adequate infrastructure, both human and physical. There is a strong need to correct these imbalances.[80]

Massive open online course are made available for free by the HRD ministry and various educational institutes.

[edit]

Extracurricular activities include sports, arts, National Service Scheme, National Cadet Corps, The Bharat Scouts and Guides, etc.

Quality[edit]

Literacy[edit]

Main article: Literacy in India

According to the Census of 2011, "every person above the age of 7 years who can read and write with understanding in any language is said to be literate". According to this criterion, the 2011 survey holds the National Literacy Rate to be 74.07%.[81] The youth literacy rate, measured within the age group of 15 to 24, is 81.1% (84.4% among males and 74.4% among females),[82] while 86% of boys and 72% of girls are literate in the 10-19 age group.[83]

Within the Indian states, Kerala has the highest literacy rate of 94.65% whereas Bihar averaged 63.8% literacy.[81] The 2001 statistics indicated that the total number of 'absolute non-literates' in the country was 304 million.[81] Gender gap in literacy rate is high, for example in Rajasthan, the state with the lowest female literacy rate in India,[84] average female literacy rate is 52.66% and average male lieracy rate is 80.51%, making a gender gap of 27.85%.[85]

Attainment[edit]

As of 2011, enrollment rates are 58% for pre-primary, 93% for primary, 69% for secondary, and 25% for tertiary education.[86]

Despite the high overall enrollment rate for primary education among rural children of age 10, half could not read at a basic level, over 60% were unable to do division, and half dropped out by the age of 14.[87]

In 2009, two states in India, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh, participated in the international PISA exams which is administered once every three years to 15-year-old's. Both states ranked at the bottom of the table, beating out only Kyrgyzstan in score, and falling 200 points (two standard deviations) below the average for OECD countries.[88] While in the immediate aftermath there was a short-lived controversy over the quality of primary education in India, ultimately India decided to not participate in PISA for 2012,[89] and again not to for 2015.[90]

While the quality of free, public education is in crisis, a majority of the urban poor have turned to private schools. In some urban cities, it is estimated as high as two-thirds of all students attend private institutions,[91] many of which charge a modest US$2 per month. There has not been any standardised assessment of how private schools perform, but it is generally accepted that they outperform public schools.

Public school workforce[edit]

Officially, the pupil to teacher ratio within the public school system for primary education is 35:1.[92] However, teacher absenteeism in India is exorbitant, with 25% never showing up for work.[93] The World Bank estimates the cost in salaries alone paid to such teachers who have never attended work is US $2 billion per year.[94]

A study on teachers by Kremer etc. found out that 25% of private sector teachers and 40% of public sector medical workers were absent during the survey. Among teachers who were paid to teach, absence rates ranged from 14.6% in Maharashtra to 41.9% in Jharkhand. Only 1 in nearly 3,000 public school head teachers had ever dismissed a teacher for repeated absence.[95]

University of Calcutta, established on 1857, was the first multidisciplinary and secular Western-style institution in Asia.
Indian Pre-Primary School children (Divine Orchids International Preschool, Jawhar)
Secondary school girls in Delhi.

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